There are three major sub-categories of off-grid solar home products based on price and functionality: micro solar products, solar home systems (SHS), and home appliances. For most rural low-income households, the purchase threshold for micro-solar products is the lowest. Home solar systems can be divided into plug-and-play pre-installed systems and open market component systems. Home solar systems can provide a variety of energy functions, such as powering appliances, but are relatively expensive. In addition, energy-efficient solar appliances powered by direct current (DC) include household appliances (such as televisions and refrigerators) and production equipment (such as water pumps and agricultural cold storage).
Micro solar products include small portable solar lamps, flashlights or lanterns designed to meet basic lighting needs as a drop-in replacement for kerosene lamps in small households. These are usually well packaged, either as a simple single-lamp system (with an LED lamp, an embedded solar panel with a peak power range of 0.5-3.0 watts, and a built-in rechargeable lithium battery), or as a multi-lamp system (with three to four LED lights, a standalone solar panel with up to 10 watts of peak power, and a rechargeable lithium battery). Some models have a USB port for charging your phone.
A home solar system consists of a solar panel with a peak power rating of 11 watts and above, a home lighting system, and a large system that can power appliances. Home solar systems refer to plug-and-play systems and packaged systems unless otherwise stated.
In an assembled system, individual components such as PV modules, batteries, lights, inverters, wires and appliances are independently procured and assembled by product system integrators or individuals for home use, sometimes over extended periods of time. Part status. Assembled home solar systems typically have peak power above 11 watts, which is the power standard by which they are classified as home solar system products, although some are smaller.
Production solar energy (PULSE) refers to the direct use of off-grid solar energy in the production of goods and services in agricultural, commercial or industrial activities. Solar energy for production can increase the income-generating capacity of households and micro-enterprises, mainly from mechanized commercial production activities and additional lighting time for work production: electricity enables mechanized production that would otherwise have to be done by humans; Work production time is extended, resulting in higher yields. These production activities and lighting needs can also be met using non-renewable energy sources such as diesel generators or kerosene installations.
The application of off-grid solar products to production activities is an emerging opportunity for the off-grid solar industry, a market that is still in its infancy and needs to be learned and developed. The range of products in the field of solar energy for production is very wide, including solar water pumps (SWPs) and cold storage for agricultural operations, as well as refrigeration systems and related electrical appliances used in the business activities of small and micro enterprises. Among them, the market for solar water pumps has been greatly promoted by government subsidies; in India, for example, a total of more than 150,000 solar water pump units have been sold in the market with the support of government subsidies. Commercial opportunities in the production solar products market continue to increase as the technological cost of production solar products decreases, equipment efficiency increases, and business model innovations. According to statistics, the partner companies sold nearly 10,000 solar products for production (all below 3 kW power) between the second half of 2018 and the first half of 2019 (the only time period for which sales data were collected). However, given the market There are a large number of solar water pump manufacturers in Shanghai, and anecdotal evidence suggests that the number of solar water pump units sold globally is much higher than the tracked figures.
Best practices for integrating off-grid solar into national electrification projects have emerged, with Togo and Ethiopia being successful examples. The inclusion of off-grid solar power in national electrification plans in both countries further catalyzes demand and simplifies the path to market for product suppliers. In Togo, a clear endorsement of off-grid solar technology, transparent operating licensing requirements and government support to remove important market barriers have attracted private sector operators. Likewise, Ethiopia has a clear national policy framework for achieving national energy access, with off-grid solar as a transition strategy and a long-term solution. At the same time, Kenya is the first to demonstrate how the government has successfully enabled off-grid products to reach remote and low-paying customers through the precise provision of local currency financing and outcome-based business incentives. All three countries have favorable tax regimes for off-grid solar products. Governments are increasingly adopting quality standards, fostering consumer awareness and implementing consumer protection measures. Building consumer confidence in off-grid solar products is critical, especially in immature markets; and governments play a key role in protecting consumers from the negative effects of poor quality products and products with excessive financial risks influences. It is particularly important to increase consumer awareness of the benefits of (high-quality) off-grid solar products, which will help catalyze demand from new potential customers. Lack of awareness of off-grid solar is the most common reason consumers do not choose off-grid solar products, a factor that even ranks ahead of “affordability.” Governments are increasingly adopting and enforcing internationally recognized quality standards and importing duty-free products for quality-cleared products. Ethiopia, for example, recently adopted international standards, a move that not only reduces import costs for off-grid solar companies, but also helps reduce the flow of inferior products into the market.
The new policy and regulatory framework underpinning the development of the off-grid solar industry needs to remain flexible to keep pace with the industry. These frameworks need to be continuously upgraded to address new opportunities and challenges, such as pay-as-you-go models, solar energy for production and utility electrification. In addition, the impact of policy measures depends on the ability and political will of governments to ensure their full implementation. It is too early to assess the success of the recent series of national policies; to be sure, the achievement of policy objectives will require strong planning and swift execution. In this spirit, development partners must support governments by ensuring that financial and technological resources can keep pace with their ambitious policies and strategies, and that their support for off-grid electrification is not diminished by political constraints or capacity constraints.